Stainless Steel 440

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Harsh Steel

Siddhivinayak Co Op Hsg Soc(Durgadas Building), Shop No 3, Ground floor, Ardeshir Dadi cross Lane, Near CP Tank, Mumbai, Maharashtra - 400004, India

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  • Typical applications include:
  • Rolling element bearings
  • Valve seats
  • High quality knife blades
  • Surgical instruments
  • Chisels

Heat Treatment:

  • Annealing – Full anneal – 850-900°C, slow furnace cool to about 600°C and then air cool. Sub-critical Annealing – 735-785°C and slow furnace cool.
  • Hardening – Heat to 1010-1065°C, followed by quenching in warm oil or air. Oil quenching is necessary for heavy sections. Immediately temper at 150-370°C to obtain a wide variety of hardness values and mechanical properties as indicated in the accompanying table.
  • Tempering in the range 425-565°C is to be avoided because of reduced impact resistance and corrosion resistance. Tempering in the range 590-675°C results in lower hardness (the product become machinable) and high impact resistance.

Welding:-If welding is necessary pre-heat at 250°C and follow welding with a full anneal. Grade 420 filler will give a high hardness weld (although not as high as the 440C), but 309 or 310 will produce soft welds with higher ductility.


Material Stainless Steel
Shape Rectangular, Square
Thickness 100-200mm, 200-300mm, 400-500mm
Length 1000-2000mm, 2000-3000mm, 3000-4000mm, 4000-5000mm
Application Construction, Industry
Width 1-50mm, 100-150mm, 150-200mm, 200-250mm
Technique Cold Drawn, Forged
Dimensions 1500-2000mm, 500-1000mm


Grade C Mn Si P S Cr Mo Ni N
440C min. max. 0.95 1.20 -1 -1 -0.04 -0.03 16.00 18.00 -0.75 - -

Mechanical Properties

Tempering Temperature (°C) Tensile Strength (MPa) Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa) Elongation (% in 50mm) Hardness Rockwell (HR C) Impact Charpy V (J)
Annealed* 758 448 14 269HB max# -
204 2030 1900 4 59 9
260 1960 1830 4 57 9
316 1860 1740 4 56 9
371 1790 1660 4 56 9
* Annealed properties are typical for Condition A of ASTM A276# Brinell Hardness is ASTM A276 specified maximum for annealed 440A, B and C.

Physical Properties

Grade Density (kg/m3) Elastic Modulus (GPa) Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (mm/m/°C) Thermal Conductivity(W/m.K) Specific Heat
0-100°C (J/kg.K)
Electrical Resistivity (nW.m)
0-100°C 0-200°C 0-600°C at 100°C at 500°C
440 C 7650 200 10.1 10.3 11.7 24.2 - 460 600

Alternative Grades

Grade Why it might be chosen instead of 440C
440A/B Slightly softer and more corrosion resistant grade needed
440F High machinability required, with same hardness and hardenability as 440C
420 Lower strength and hardness needed than any of the 440 Grades
416 Higher machinability required, and the much lower hardness and strength is still adequate

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